Facts on Electric Cars

Facts on Electric Cars

According to the Canadian National Campaign for Electric Vehicles, energy and fuel costs of electric cars are 90 percent less than energy and fuel costs of gasoline-powered cars. Electric vehicles also have quieter engines than cars with internal-combustion engines. Unlike gasoline-powered vehicles, electric cars do not emit pollutants. Owning an electric vehicle also eliminates the need for smog inspections, cooling fluid replacement, oil changes and other types of maintenance. Contrary to popular belief, electric vehicles can run just as fast as some gasoline-powered cars.


  • Robert Anderson developed the first electric carriage between 1832 and 1839 in Scotland, according to the Canadian National Campaign for Electric Vehicles. In 1835, Professor Stratingh of Groinggen, Holland, designed the first small electric car. Electric cars held several distance and speed records in the early part of the 20th century. On April 29, 1899, Camille Jenatzy broke the 100 km/h speed barrier for the first time in an electric vehicle. As the internal-combustion engine improved, electric car production slowed. However, in 1996, General Motors produced 1,117 GM EVs that could go as fast as 80 mph. Nissan, Toyota and Honda all sell electric vehicles.
    General Motors produced 1,117 EVs in 1996.


  • According to the Canadian National Campaign for Electric Vehicles, electric cars such as the French Venturi, Mullen L1x and the Tesla can reach top speeds of between 100 and 130 mph. These electric cars are also capable of going from 0 to 60 mph in 3 to 5 seconds. The Ellica, another electric vehicle, has gone as fast as 230 mph. The majority of electric cars on the market can move at top speeds of between 60 and 100 mph.
    Electric cars reach top speeds of between 60 and 100 mph.


  • The Canadian National Campaign for Electric Vehicles states that the type and number of batteries used, driving habits and weight of a car all affect mileage range per charge for electric vehicles. Electric cars with lead-acid batteries can travel up to 80 miles on a single charge. NiMH batteries can deliver up to 120 miles per charge and lithium-ion batteries get between 250 and 300 miles per charge. Most electric cars on the market get at least 100 miles per charge.
    Most electric vehicles currently on the market get a 100-mile range per charge.


  • According to the Canadian National Campaign for Electric Vehicles, electric vehicles usually cost between 2 and 4 cents per mile to drive. Vehicles that have an internal combustion engine cost between four and six times as much. Electric cars have only a few hundred parts while gasoline-powered cars have a few thousand. This makes the maintenance cost of an electric car three times less than that of a gasoline car. Electric cars are not more expensive to purchase than gasoline-powered cars, and they help protect the environment at the same time.
    Electric vehicles cost significantly less to drive than gasoline-powered cars.


  • Electric cars have zero emissions from their exhaust pipes, but they still require electricity that’s often created by burning coal and other types of fossil fuels. However, in comparison to gasoline-powered cars, the total amount of emissions that are released into the environment are much less with an electric car. According to the Canadian National Campaign for Electric Vehicles, burning 1 gallon of gasoline releases 22 pounds of CO2 into the atmosphere. However, only 7 pounds of CO2 are released from a power plant to create the equivalent energy that an electric car would need to travel 25 miles. Electric vehicles are not completely emission free, but they’re certainly much more environmentally friendly than gasoline-powered vehicles.
    Coal power plants often create the electricity needed for electric cars.

Careers With a Natural Science Degree

Four students working in laboratory
Natural science degrees incorporate coursework from a variety of different scientific disciplines, including chemistry, astronomy, physics and biology. While a specific degree in a scientific discipline prepares students for a more specialized career track, a broad degree in natural science gives graduates some flexibility in their job search with the option of adding graduate study in the future for more specialization and career advancement.

Environmental Scientists

  • According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, a natural sciences degree prepares students for an entry-level job in environmental science. Environmental scientists work to improve and protect the natural environment. Often working either in laboratories or in the field, these professionals rehabilitate polluted areas, try to influence policy markers or act as consultants to companies on projects such as waste management. The 2012 median pay for environmental scientists and specialists was $63,570 per year with an industry growth of 15 percent, which is faster than the national average for all occupations.

Food Scientists

  • Food scientists work in a variety of occupations related to agriculture and the food industry. Some might work with companies to develop new food products while others might research ways to improve soil quality or crop efficiency. Coursework in chemistry is often a requirement for an entry-level job in this field. With a 2012 annual median salary of $58,610, job seekers will enter a field with average job growth and the opportunity for advancement with continued education.

Zoologists and Wildlife Biologists

  • With a natural science degree, animal lovers can pursue a career in zoology or wildlife biology. By studying animal behavior and physical traits, as well as the impacts that humans have on natural ecosystems, these scientists work in the field and in laboratories to gather data and conduct research. The annual median salary for professionals in this field was $57,710 in 2012. While the growth rate of such careers is lower than the national average at 5 percent, specialized opportunities are available for those with a doctoral degree.

Forensic Science Technicians

  • If you have an analytical mind and an attention to detail, pursuing a job in forensics after graduation may be the right move. Forensic science technicians work with law enforcement to gather and analyze crime scene evidence. With a balance between scientific analysis and writing reports, these individuals often work unusual hours and must travel frequently within their jurisdiction. The 2012 median annual pay for this field was $52,840. Growth is projected at 6 percent, slower than the average for all occupations.

Information Technology Jobs in the Music Industry

Mix your loves of music and technology.
The ways in which music is produced and marketed have changed significantly as technology has advanced, and many music careers now involve information technology. The broad category of information technology consists of any job in which technology is used to create, store or transfer information, reports “Entrepreneur” magazine. Tech-savvy individuals who wish to work in the music industry can pursue one of many music-related information technology paths.


  • Mixers use technology to create music. These specialists take individual musical tracks and combine them using mixing boards or computer software to create a full-bodied song. Individuals who work in this position often work in close contact with the artists. They are responsible for the sound quality and overall appeal of the music they work with, as it is often their mixing that separates a nice song from a potential hit.

Music Video Editor

  • Music video editors combine the music with visual components to create an engaging and attractive multimedia product. Individuals who edit music videos use their information technology skills to manipulate audio and video files and combine them to create a musical product. Although music video editors do not often have complete creative control of the finished product, they do have some power in shaping the overall look of the video creation.

Digital Marketer

  • The way in which music makers are presented to the public has changed greatly over the years. Today much marketing is done in the digital setting, with artists and record labels setting up online advertisements to inform and entice listeners. Digital marketers work to create these online advertisements and inform web users of artists and their music. These information technology professionals create ads for musical artists and work to either place or sell the advertisements to ensure they reach web users.

Artist Website Designer

  • Website designers often build a digital persona for a musical artist, as many potential listeners turn to the web when gathering information about an artist they may potentially follow. A well-organized and attractive website presents the artist as a professional and may entice would-be listeners to pick up or download the artist’s album.

Schools That Offer a Music Technology Degree in the US

Most music degree programs require basic piano proficiency for graduation.
A music technology degree prepares you to work in recording studios or in the television and radio industries. The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics in 2010 predicted an average eight percent growth of the need for technicians in these fields over the following ten years, with entry-level positions in metropolitan areas proving the most competitive.

Indiana University/Purdue University – Indianapolis

  • The Bachelor of Science degree in Musical Technology at Purdue’s Indianapolis campus requires 130 hours of coursework over the four-year duration of the program. Prospective students must have completed a high school diploma and demonstrate musical experience and expertise by completing an audition. According to Purdue’s website, the program is the “first undergraduate music degree to be offered entirely with music technology throughout the program,” offering students an immersive musical and technical environment.

Virginia Tech

  • Virginia Tech’s campus boasts over 3500 square feet of music technology facilities including recording and production studios and soundproofed media facilities utilizing the most modern software and equipment available. They offer two degree options: 50- and 78-hour curriculums including classes like “Soundtrack and Effects Composition” and “Computer Music & Multimedia Design.”

Community College of Philadelphia

  • Students seeking a two-year degree may attend the Community College of Philadelphia, which offers an Associate’s degree in Sound Recording and Music Technology. Prospective students complete a music theory placement test and consultation with the department chair. The program includes 67 credit hours of coursework including classes in music and aural theory as well as digital editing and composition.

Kent State University

  • Students at Kent State may choose from two music technology-related Bachelor’s degree programs: Audio Recording and Music Production. Participants in this program complete their coursework at the University’s Stark Campus, where a partnership with nearby Kopperhead recording studio offers access to state-of-the-art facilities. Each major concentration requires 122 credit hours of coursework for graduation.

The Three Levels of Natural Science

Biology is just one of the subareas of natural science.

Natural science is an umbrella term used to describe several subareas in science, including any that concern matter, energy and how these react and transform with each other. In colleges across the United States, natural science departments are often structured in an interdisciplinary format, drawing from numerous areas of science and sometimes even math. However, natural science can generally be broken down into three main categories: biology, chemistry and physics. Each of these is a discipline of study in its own right, but there are also several subareas within each.


  • Biology focuses on life in all its forms — humans, animals, plants and other organisms. Biology can also be subdivided into separate areas of interest, such as molecular and cell biology, human biology, ecology and evolutionary biology, developmental biology, microbiology and immunology. These subareas provide a more narrow approach for students to focus their skills and studies, though most colleges have a core requirement that is necessary for all biology majors to complete. This core will include biology courses, as well as classes in chemistry and physics to round out the science program.


  • Chemistry is another major area within the natural sciences, and like biology, there are a few notable subcategories. Organic, analytical and physical chemistry are three of these areas. In addition to core degree requirements, chemistry majors will be immersed in classes like quantitative chemistry, inorganic chemistry, cellular biochemistry and instrumental analysis, which deals with theories and uses of chemical instruments. Major learning outcomes in the study of chemistry include solving and explaining problems, demonstrating laboratory skills, presenting results and understanding chemical theories and practices.


  • Physics is concerned with the laws of nature and the properties of different types of matter. This area of natural sciences covers a wide range of subtopics, including electronics, optics and waves, magnetism, thermodynamics and quantum physics. Students in a physics program will explore all of these, and will also participate in research projects to gain hands-on experience in the discipline. Physics also draws heavily from math, and calculus plays a particularly big role.

Other Areas

  • In addition to biology, chemistry and physics, the natural sciences also include areas of study in biochemistry, computer science, geology, mathematics and psychology. These sub-fields are frequently represented at colleges with a natural science department, as they also involve the study of matter, energy and other elements of the natural world. As part of a collective group, these disciplines often overlap, with students drawing from several areas to complete their courses of study. For instance, biochemistry students will find themselves taking several math classes, and psychology students will often take courses in biology sub-fields, such as anatomy and physiology.

How to Undelete a Deleted Flip Video

You may be able to salvage videos you delete from your video camera.
Flip video cameras save video clips in specific video files. Because of this, if you’ve accidentally deleted a video from your Flip video camera, you can get it back. All you have to do is recover the files you deleted.


  1. Download and install the free trial version of UndeleteMyFiles Pro from seriousbit.com.
  2. Plug your Flip video camera into your computer using the cable that came with it.
  3. Run the UndeleteMyFiles Pro program. It will automatically select your C: Drive, but you can browse to your other drives — including your Flip video camera drive, as long as the camera is plugged into your computer.
  4. Click to select your Flip video camera drive and click the “Search” button. Your computer will display a couple of video files. Locate the video you want to recover and select it from the list, then click the “Recover” button.

How to Become an Ecological Guru in The Sims 2

How to Become a Business Tycoon in The Sims 2
Getting to the top of the Natural Science career track isn’t easy. It requires a lot of studying, long hours, lots of contacts and a great love for the natural world. If you think your Sim is up to it, get them started on the path to becoming an Ecological Guru. It could pay off for them.


  1. Become a morning Sim. With the exception of the highest level, all the working hours of the Natural Science career are in the morning. If your Sim likes to stay up late and sleep in late, you will need to either buy them an alarm clock or find another job for them. Natural Science is not for the late risers!
  2. Build something. Whether you restore a car, fix your own appliances or read a book, your Natural Science Sim needs to have an intimate knowledge of the way moving things work (mechanics.) Your Sim will need all ten Mechanical points to become an Ecological Guru.
  3. Keep a clean house. Most Sims who have more than a couple points in Cleanliness will want to do this naturally, but some may need a little prodding. Cleaning is an essential skill to have for someone who will potentially be working in sterile environments such as test chambers and bio-labs. Your Sim will need to be masterfully competent with cleanliness (eight points) to become an Ecological Guru.
  4. Exercise your body and your mind. Natural Science Sims need more than a sharp mind to carry out their experiments. The need for knowledge of other animals is matched only by the need to know one’s self. Your Sim will need eight points in Body and ten points in Logic to reach the top.
  5. Make lots of friends. Every job is about who you know. The more friends you have, the farther you will go. The Natural Science career track is no exception. You need to know the right people to secure research grants, find lab facilities and a good lawyer to sanction your “extracurricular” experiments. Your Sim will need 12 friends to make it to Ecological Guru.

Advantages & Disadvantages of Electric Cars

Advantages & Disadvantages of Electric Cars
The time is coming for the long-awaited, efficient all-electric car. The technology is improving rapidly and, according to some manufacturers, consumers soon will have several models to choose from. Electric cars have several advantages over gasoline-powered cars. Still, if electric automobiles want to win over consumers, they will have to overcome some hurdles down the road.

Pro: Environmentally Friendly

  • Several economic and environmental advantages stand out. Electric cars reduce dependence on foreign oil, damage to the environment and air pollution. Without the need for gasoline or diesel, electric-car owners do not suffer from higher gasoline prices. In contrast, electric car owners are spending the equivalent of around 60 cents per gallon to run their vehicles.

Pro: Efficiency

  • Electric cars are much more efficient compared to gasoline-powered cars. Electric motors use most of their stored energy to propel the car; a gasoline engine uses between 20 and 30 percent of its heat energy to move the car, while the cooling system and exhaust systems dissipate the rest.

Pro: Power Source Availability

  • Electric cars may charge their batteries through home electrical outlets. Depending on battery type, it may take from 10 minutes to four hours on average to charge with a range of between 50 and more than 100 miles.

Pro: Little Maintenance

  • With a much simpler engine design compared to internal combustion engines, electric cars require little maintenance and last much longer. As prices go down, they are becoming more accessible to the average consumer. As of January 2009, current electric car models range in price from $11,700 to $109,000.

Con: Public Road Constraints

  • In the United States, only a handful of states, including California, allow electric cars on public roads and their traffic codes vary. Anyone considering the purchase of electric vehicles should verify traffic regulations before investing in an all-electric model.

Con: Limited Service Facilities

  • The number of service facilities is limited, which makes it difficult for some electric car owners to bring their vehicles in for repairs if they bought their car out of state.

Con: Few Models

  • The number of available all-electric car models is limited. Consumers expecting to buy an electric car with the standard features and passenger capacity they expect from an average gasoline-powered car will have to spend tens of thousands of dollars.

How to Connect a Laptop to a Smart TV

A TV can make an excellent second monitor for presentations or enjoying media.
Smart televisions are designed to be one-stop shops for entertainment, bringing you streaming video, cable connections, and other multimedia without the need for a box or attachment. However, you can still connect your laptop to a smart TV if you’d like to view the contents of your computer on the television. Smart TVs rely on HDMI connections; your laptop may or may not support this cable format by default.


  1. Check your laptop’s video output ports to figure out which format it uses. Modern laptops often have HDMI ports, but older computers will use DVI. Apple’s MacBook series relies on an Apple-specific Thunderbolt port.
  2. Connect one end of your HDMI cable to one of your smart TV’s HDMI input slots. Most Smart TVs have several HDMI ports from which to choose; use the first available slot.
  3. Connect the other end to the laptop’s HDMI port. If you’re using an adapter, connect the HDMI cable to the Out port on the adapter and then connect the appropriate cable from the Out port on your laptop to the In port on the adapter. For instance, run a DVI cable from the DVI Out port on the laptop to the DVI In port on the adapter, and the HDMI cable from the HDMI Out port on the adapter to an HDMI In port on your television.
  4. Turn on your smart television and your laptop. Use the “Input” button on your remote or on the television to set it to the HDMI channel that corresponds with the input port to which you’ve connected your laptop. Most laptops will automatically detect the connection and start screen sharing; press “Windows-P” or “Command-F1” to switch between options.

Set Up a DLNA Media Server (Windows)

  1. Connect your smart TV to your wireless network. You’ll find these settings somewhere in the television’s main menu; follow the manufacturer’s instructions for your specific make and model of TV to complete this process.
  2. Open Windows Explorer on your laptop by pressing “Windows-E.”
  3. Place any media files you wish to share with your smart TV in the “Public” folders in each media category. For example, place music in the Public Music sub-folder in the Music folder, and place videos in the Public Videos sub-folder in the Videos folder.
  4. Open Windows Media Player by pressing the “Windows” key, typing “Windows Media Player,” and clicking the “Windows Media Player” icon.
  5. Click the “Stream” menu and select “Turn On Media Streaming.” Click the “Turn On Media Streaming” button.
  6. Locate your smart TV on the list of networked devices. Click the “Allowed” check box to enable sharing with your television.
  7. Turn on your smart TV and search through the available connections. Your computer’s media library will be shared to the TV as a DLNA media server.

How to Wire an Opcom 47546 Security Camera

Home security and the safety of their families are top priorities for many home owners. The Opcom 47546 security camera is a heavy-duty waterproof model that you can install to monitor your home both inside and out. You can even connect the camera to a VCR to record what is happening while you are away. The process of wiring the camera takes only a few minutes to complete.
How to Wire a Security Camera


  1. Place the camera bracket on the wall or ceiling where you want to place the Opcom security camera. Use the power drill to insert the provided screws through the holes in the bracket and secure the camera to the surface.
  2. Connect the phone-jack adapter that is attached to the security camera to the video and audio cable by plugging the phone-line end into the adapter. Run the other end of the video and audio wires to the location of your television and VCR systems. You can run these wires through the walls or ceiling if you wish to conceal them.
  3. Connect the yellow wire to the video input on your VCR if you wish to record the video from the camera, or directly to the television if you wish to see a live-video feed. Connect the white audio cable to the audio input on the same device.
  4. Plug the power cable into an open AC wall outlet to provide power to the camera. Connect the other end of the power cable into the power-cable input wire located on the camera cable that you ran from the security camera.
  5. Turn on your television or VCR and switch to the input that corresponds to the connections you have made. You will now see the video feed and be able to record it with a VHS tape.

Physical Vs. Natural Science

The term science means knowledge.

Science is a way to organize knowledge and understanding about the world. From the beginning, science was closely linked to philosophy and the aim was to find reliable and logical explanations to things that were observed or predicted. Today, science is often divided into natural science and physical science. Distinguishing between the branches is not always easy, and often a subject can be approached in several different ways, which means that they do not belong in one category.

Physical Science

  • Things made by man are studied in physical science, and nonliving systems such as physics, mathematics, material science and computers are included. Chemistry, the composition and structure of matter, is a physical science. Another is Earth science, the study of the composition of Earth and areas such as water, geology and atmospheres. Physics is a fundamental science, which means that sciences such as biology and chemistry obey the laws of physics. Mathematics is, according to some mathematicians, not a science, since it cannot be experimentally falsifiable. Others believe that mathematical principles are discovered rather than created.

Natural Science

  • Living things and materials are explored in natural science. This branch was previously called natural philosophy and prior to the 17th century it was less scientific in application. The English scientist Francis Bacon introduced scientific methods and this led to a planned empirical examination of a subject. Natural sciences include subjects such as biology, medicine and natural history. Natural sciences form the basis in applied sciences, which applies scientific knowledge and tests it in a practical situation.

Natural Science and Social Science

  • New ideas and discoveries lead to the development of a range of new subjects during the 19th and 20th century. Many of these were related to living things, and methodologies used to study physical and natural sciences were used to understand human behavior in new contexts, for example, psychology, sociology, education and criminology. Today, these subjects are called social sciences.

Physical and Natural Science

  • Chemistry is connected to several natural sciences such as astronomy, biology and Earth science. The links between physical natural sciences are strong and a subject can belong in both categories. The focus and the research questions determine which category a subject may belong to. A subject such as astronomy can focus on observational astronomy where the focus is on nonliving objects. Astronomy can also explore the living conditions on a planet, making it more closely related to natural science.

How to Connect a TV to Netflix

A young couple setting up their home entertainment system
If you want to watch Netflix on your TV set, there’s a chance you already have the hardware necessary to do it. Netflix’s streaming app is available for Smart TVs, Smart Blu-ray players, gaming consoles, set-top boxes and computers. Most Netflix devices take advantage of home Wi-Fi networks; however, some can be used with an old-fashioned Ethernet cable.

Smart TV Streaming

  • If you have a Smart TV, you don’t need to connect any other devices to the TV to use Netflix. According to PC Magazine, a Smart-TV is an Internet-enabled TV that supports video streaming from content providers, among other Internet applications. Before using the Netflix app on your Smart TV, configure the device to connect to the Internet via Wi-Fi router or Ethernet cable connection. The Smart TV can launch Netflix through the app icon located in the system menu. Some remotes will have Netflix shortcut buttons. If the app isn’t already installed, check the manufacturer’s updates or “app store” features through the TV itself for the app.

Set-top Box Streaming

  • If you don’t have a Smart TV, set-top boxes are your most affordable option to watch Neflix on your TV. Popular supported set-top boxes include Apple TV, Roku and the Amazon Fire. Additionally, Smart Blu-ray players have built-in set-top box features and can run the Netflix app as well. If the device doesn’t come with the Netflix app installed, you can download it from the device’s app store — just connect the set-top box to your TV and home network to get started.

Video Game Consoles

  • If you’ve bought a video game console released any time since late 2005, you have a Netflix-compatible device. The Netflix app is available on gaming consoles including the PlayStation 3, PlayStation 4, Xbox 360, Xbox One, Wii and Wii U. Each console requires installing the Netflix app before you can use it. You can download the Netflix app on PlayStation consoles by selecting the Netflix icon under the “Video” or “TV & Video” menu sub-headings. You can find the Xbox versions of the app in the Live store and both the Wii and WiiU host the app in the Nintendo eShop.

Using Your PC

  • Instead of using the Netlix app on your device, you can connect your computer to the TV. The easiest way to connect a desktop or a laptop to a TV is to use the computer’s HDMI port, if it has one. The HDMI connection will handle both audio and video, requiring only a single cable. To set up the connection, connect the cable to the ports on the TV and the computer and let the computer handle the automatic second screen configuration. The system should mirror the image on both screens by default. If you’re running Windows 8, you can download the Netflix app from the Microsoft store; otherwise, you can just load and watch Netflix in any Web browser.

How to Waterproof a Camera

Those underwater shots of coral reefs and close-up action pictures of the kids on the water slide will not happen without a waterproof camera. You can buy the latest waterproof model, but there are other methods for protecting the camera you currently own from the destructive effects of water exposure.


  1. Buy a waterproof case for your camera. While it is possible to purchase a waterproof case designed specifically for your camera model, this option can get expensive. There are less expensive generic waterproof camera cases that will fit most camera models (see Resources).
  2. Wrap your camera in plastic or cling wrap. Rip off a long sheet of the wrap and mold it to your camera. Repeat this to ensure a good protective waterproof layer. Then use an exacto knife or a scissor point to carefully cut out holes for the lenses, snapshot button, power button and the settings controls.
  3. Create a loose plastic enclosure for your camera. Find circular gaskets that allow enough space for your camera lens, as well as sturdy PVC piping. Create a 90-degree angle with one or two pieces of piping, then “fit” the camera to the device so that the gaskets fit around the lens and the piping supports the camera. Drill a hole or holes into the piping below the camera so you can secure the camera to the pipe using its tripod attachment. Take a plastic bag in a size that completely covers the camera, and cut a hole for the lense. Glue the opening of the bag in between two gaskets to create a seal, then turn the bag inside out to cover the camera and piping.

Music Technologies of the ’80s

The 1985 Dire Straits album "Brothers In Arms" was the first CD to sell one million copies.
Audio and music recording and reproduction technologies made a significant leap during the 1980s. White music recording methods from previous decades, which provided analog reproductions of the original sound, were still in wide use during this time, the ’80s also heralded the first commercially available digital medium.

Compact Cassettes

  • Although Philips originally released the Compact Cassette in the 1960s as an audio dictation system, it became one of the dominant forms of music technology in the 1980s. Prior to the ’80s, the quality of Compact Cassette recordings was inferior to that of other magnetic tape systems. Improvements in recording and playback technology in the ’80s saw the Compact Cassette achieve comparable quality to LPs and FM radio, with the added advantage of making home recordings possible. After reaching the peak of its popularity in the 1980s, the Compact Cassette saw a rapid decline as the CD took a more dominant role in the 1990s.

LP Record

  • The long playing microgroove record, or LP, dates back to the 1940s, but was a central music recording technology in the 1980s. Advances in LP recording and playback technology culminated in the 1980s, allowing vinyl to compete with the likes of Compact Cassettes and FM radio. While tapes and CDs dominated home audio equipment in the 1980s, nightclubs, radio stations and other music venues used LP and single-playing microgroove analog records.

Compact Disks

  • In 1982, Philips and Sony launched the first commercially available digital music platform: the Compact Disc. The CD, an evolution of the failed Laserdisc technology of the 1970s, uses an optical storage system that is read by a laser. The use of an error correction code allows a CD to maintain full audio specifications, even if the disk is scratched or marked, and the disc does not degrade over time or through extended use, as magnetic tapes and microgroove records do. By the end of the 1980s, the CD had established itself as the natural successor to the cassette tape and vinyl record.

FM Radio

  • Frequency modulation, or FM, radio offers a considerably higher bandwidth than its amplitude modulation, or AM, predecessor. This allows for greatly improved sound quality and reception. Although FM radio was patented in the 1930s, it wasn’t until the end of the 1970s and beginning of the 1980s that FM listenership exceeded that of AM. During the 1980s, major radio stations begin a mass shift from AM to FM broadcasting, with many abandoning the former technology in favor of the superior sound of FM broadcasting.

How to Heat an Electric Car

Heating an electric car is difficult during winter.

Though celebrated for their cleaner, “greener,” improved efficiency, electric cars (EVs) also have drawbacks. One large problem is the difficulty these vehicles have in providing interior heat to passengers during cold weather. An EV’s power-hungry heater is fueled by the battery, an action that can quickly deplete an energy supply already compromised by winter weather.
Fortunately, more than one way exists to stay warm in an EV during winter and keep the car moving. The option you choose depends on your expectations and resources.


  1. Install a ceramic auto heater. It can be purchased at an auto parts store. Plug it into the electric car’s cigarette lighter if it has the appropriate extension; otherwise, replace elements of the heater core under the car’s dash with those of the ceramic auto heater. Ceramic auto heaters often have temperature controls or are even made to swivel.

    The heat control must be interlocked with the fan control to ensure the system is safe. Its important that the heater elements are turned on with the fan blowing through them.

  2. Insert an in-line water heater for a method that doesn’t require modification under the dash. Though more expensive and not as clean as a ceramic auto heater, an in-line water heater kit is simple to assemble and widely available from a multitude of commercial websites. The kit includes a water heater tank, pump, switch, interconnecting hardware, 8 feet of hose and a 12-volt direct current (DC) contactor. Assemble the kit, and tap into the car’s existing heating system. Attach the hose barbs to the existing heater water hoses, and wire a switch and the water pump.
  3. Create a heat pump for the most energy-efficient option. Attach the reversing valve to switch the function of the air conditioner by changing the roles of the evaporator and condenser. If you are not familiar with and experienced in silver brazening, call a refrigerant specialist.
  4. Put a small kerosene heater in the floor of the vehicle. Such a heater can be purchased relatively inexpensively at most hardware stores. You’ll be warm in no time, but this fossil fuel-burning heater defeats the purpose of the energy-efficient electric car.

How Has Digital Technology Affected Music?

Compact discs were hugly profitable for the music industry, as people paid for music that they already owned in other formats.

The development of digital technology has drastically changed most types of pop music. Digital technology has made it easier and cheaper for people to record, to perform and to listen to music.


  • In the ’80s, synthesizers characterized pop music. Developments in digital technology meant that synthesizers were cheaper to manufacture and they became affordable for more musicians.
    The mass manufcature of synthesizers revolutionized the sound of dance and pop music.
    The mass manufcature of synthesizers revolutionized the sound of dance and pop music.


  • As digital technology became more widespread, music makers were able to use tools that were previously only available in analog form, such as mixers and effects.


  • Improvements in home production devices and access to digital recording created a home recording revolution. People could record their music without paying to use a professional studio.

Compact Disc

  • The invention of the compact disc improved the quality of sound in recorded music. The recording industry benefited hugely as people replaced entire vinyl collections with compact disc.


  • Once only used as a tool to correct out-of-tune notes, this technology is now used creatively in many pop songs. The characteristic robotic sound is very easy to recognize.


  • MP3 technology has made it more convenient to own, distribute and access new music. Illegal downloads of MP3 tracks are costing the recording industry millions of dollars.